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White Papers

Advice from the Technology Experts

DDC’s experts author white papers explaining complex technologies in a concise and easy-to-read manner, and offer innovative and efficient problem solving strategies to resolve often encountered and perplexing application challenges, to ensure that your projects benefit from industry leading unbiased reference information and implementation techniques.

Archive

Radiation Testing of a Flash NAND Device

Total ionizing dose and single event effects testing was performed on 4 Gb NAND flash die used in DDC’s 69F24G24 flash NAND devices. If the data is regularly refreshed, the devices show good resistance to corrupted bits during total dose irradiation. In the case of heavy ion irradiation, multi-bit upsets could prove problematic to some error correction schemes.

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SEE Testing of the 4 Gb Samsung and Spansion Flash NAND

Single event effect (SEE) testing was performed on the Samsung and Spansion 4 Gb NAND flash devices. Testing was performed up to LET = 41 MeV cm2/mg. The parts were characterized for a variety of SEE. Testing and analysis showed that MBU became more prevalent at higher LET values.

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IRIG 106 Chapter 10 Standardizes MIL-STD-1553 Data Recording

In an effort to reap the benefits of standardization for data recorder file formats, the Range Commanders Council (RCC) and others in the US Air Force instrumentation community developed the IRIG 106 Chapter 10 standard. IRIG 106 Chapter 10 provides interoperability for such applications as test range telemetry, flight test instrumentation, mission recorders, video/data servers; surveillance and reconnaissance; health and usage monitoring; mission planning, debriefing, and training; and flight operations.The focus of this paper is on the formatting of data monitored from MIL-STD-1553 buses.

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High Speed 1760 and FC-AE-1553

Network interfaces for future “smart” weapons will need to support applications such as transfers of terrain maps, target templates, program files, and digitized images and video for lock-on before launch. These applications will require the use of a high-speed data interface.

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Test, Simulation, and Integration of Fibre Channel Networked Systems

Fibre Channel is a high-speed networking technology deployed on a number of military/aerospace platforms and programs. These include F- 18E/F, F-16, F-35, B1-B, B-2, E-2D, the Apache Longbow and MMH helicopters, and AESA Radar. Applications for Fibre Channel include mission computers, processor and DSP clusters; data storage; video processing, distribution, and displays; sensors such as radar, FLIR, and video; serial backplanes and IFF.

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A Practical Approach to Commercial Aircraft Data Buses

MIL-STD-1553 is a mature field proven technology that provides an ideal solution for emerging commercial aerospace applications. DDC is offering a wide variety of solutions based on this mature technology.

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Buses and Networks for Contemporary Avionics

MIL-STD-1553 has served the needs of military system integrators for over 30 years, particularly in the area of command and control applications. Nevertheless, contemporary applications such as high-speed digitized sensors, file transfers, processor clusters, and displays require much higher data rates than 1553’s 1Mb/s. For some environments, particularly for legacy aircraft, the optional solution is to transmit faster data rates over existing 1553 buses. However, there are other applications that can accommodate and benefit by the deployment of gigabit or multi-gigabit copper or optical switched fabric networks. In addition to MIL-STD-1553, this paper presents and comments about several avionics networking technologies including High-Speed 1553, Fibre Channel, Gigabit Ethernet, and ARINC 664, a form of profiled Ethernet.

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TID Performance Degradation of High Precision, 16-bit Analog-to-Digital Converters

16-bit analog-to-digital (A/D) converters were evaluated for performance and linearity degradation due to the total dose induced shifts in the voltage reference. Test data and analysis of three A/D converters is presented.

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MIL-STD-1553 Goes Commercial

MIL-STD-1553 is a serial data bus that has been used as the primary command and control interconnect in military aircraft for the past three decades. MIL-STD-1553’s robust performance, high level of interoperability, large installed based, and well established infrastructure of vendors has made MIL-STD-1553 the network of choice for military avionics systems around the world. This paper explores some of the major attributes of MIL-STD-1553 and discusses why MIL-STD-1553 is an ideal choice for use in commercial aircraft systems.

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MIL-STD-1553 Physical Layer for Time-Triggered Networks

Time Triggered networking technologies such as TTP (Time Triggered Protocol) are beginning to be used in critical aerospace applications such as flight controls. While TTP provides stringent specifications for determinism and fault tolerance, it does not define a physical layer. This paper presents MIL-STD-1553’s physical layer as a candidate for use with TTP.

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Distributed and Reconfigurable Architecture for Flight Control System

New airplanes must meet rigorous requirements of aviation safety, operational reliability, high performance and energy efficiency at a low cost. To meet this challenge, we should optimize current system and take advantage of available technology for the next decade. This work is aiming at proposing some evolutions for Flight Control System (FCS) and to build alternative FCS low-cost and safe architectures for the next decade with less hardware and software resources.

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High Performance 1553

The U.S. Air Force is currently in the process of developing a revision to MIL-STD-1553 that will provide additional digital communication bandwidth beyond MIL-STD-1553B’s 1 Megabit per second (Mbps) rate. The proposed revision to MIL-STD-1553 (referred to as MIL-STD-1553C) is targeting 200 Mbps as a baseline data rate. This paper explores the feasibility of the U.S. Air Force’s proposed revision to MIL-STD-1553 based on studies conducted by Data Device Corporation (DDC).

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MIL-STD-1553 Evolves with the Times

The use of MIL-STD-1553 is not limited to military aircraft. MIL-STD-1553’s use is pervasive in military ground vehicles, military ships, and satellite systems. All of these applications share common requirements for a deterministic, fault tolerant data bus that will operate in relatively harsh environments.

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Proton Transport, An Examination of Model and Experimental Data For Space Environment Protons

In the last decade the space community has seen a change from the dominance of a few countries with a focus on military applications to a worldwide involvement of an increasingly commercial nature. Similarly, the components used in satellites have evolved increasingly from the traditional radiation hardened components to the use of commercial silicon electronics. Using commercial electronics requires radiation characterization and generally some form of radiation analysis and mitigation for the intended application. In this case the satellite designer is trading the known radiation tolerance characteristics of a radiation hardened IC for the higher performance and lower cost of a commercial IC.

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Total COTS Solutions for Embedded 1553

For contemporary avionics design, there’s a need to strategically allocate engineering resources without increasing time to market. This environment has engendered an increasing reliance on Commercial-off-the-Shelf (COTS) hardware and software, with a demand for total solutions that may be leveraged over a range of applications.

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Synchro and Resolver

High-Reliability Position Control for Rugged Applications

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Proton Cross-Sections from Heavy-Ion Data in GaAs Devices

This paper reports on the calculation of proton SEU cross section from heavy-ion data in GaAs devices. A number of different models are used, however in each, accommodations must be made to account for the fact that the density and ionization energy of GaAs differs from that of Si. Model accuracy is checked using data on proton and heavy-ion cross sections from the published literature.

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Proton Cross-Sections from Heavy-Ion Data in Deep-Submicron Technologies

This paper reports on the calculation of proton SEU cross section from heavy-ion data using a number of different models. Model accuracy is checked using data on proton and heavy-ion cross sections from the published literature. The closed-form models developed with earlier semiconductor devices typically overestimated the proton cross section, and the difference increased with smaller feature sizes. The results emphasize that low LET heavy-ion data is crucial in determining the proton upset cross section.

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BLDC Motor Controllers...for Maximum Performance & Efficiency

Modern Brushless DC (BLDC) motor controllers that are housed in compact assemblies are ideal for integration into systems that require precision control and efficiency. This enabling technology fulfills the requirements of both simple and complex motor systems, while offering significant advantages and improving time to market.

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DDC Replacements for Obsolete Aeroflex Transceivers

Aeroflex Colorado Springs (Aeroflex) announced on April 17th, 2009 that both UT63M105 & UT63M125 (Standard Microcircuit Drawing 5962-88644), 15-Volt, MIL-STD-1553 Bus Transceivers have reached End-of-Life (EOL) status and are out of production. DDC replacements are lower-power and are electrically / mechanically compatible to the discontinued items which should preclude the need for a board re-design due to the transceiver obsolescence issue.

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Radiation Performance of a Flash NOR Device

We present the results of single-event effects (SEE) and total ionizing-dose (TID) testing performed on the die used in DDC’s 56F64008 flash-NOR devices. The device was single event latchup (SEL) immune at LET=85 MeV cm2/mg. All single event functional interrupts (SEFI) observed could be cleared by resetting the part without a need for power cycling.

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How Rad Hard Do You Need? The Changing Approach To Space Parts Selection?

Space is no longer the sole domain of the world’s largest governments, where programs are funded by enormous and eternal budgets aimed at fighting the cold war. Consequently, space manufacturers around the world are faced with a requirement to build satellites that are faster, better and cheaper than those made in the past. To meet this rapidly changing market, satellite companies and component manufacturers alike have begun reshaping their product offerings. More specifically, semiconductor manufacturers have begun reinterpreting industry conventions to meet the needs of their newly redefined customer base.

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Designing A Single Board Computer For Space Using The Most Advanced Processor and Mitigation Technologies

As high-end computing becomes more of a necessity in space, there currently exists a large gap between what is available to satellite manufacturers and the state of the commercial processor industry. As a result, Data Device Corporation has developed a Super Computer for Space that utilizes the latest commercial Silicon-on-Insulator PowerPC processors and state-of-the-art memory modules to achieve space-qualified performance that is from 10 to 1000 times that of current technology. Presented is a brief synopsis of DDC’s design approach and radiation mitigation techniques and radiation test results employed on DDC’s next generation SBC.

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BLDC Motor Control in Demanding Environments

Motor drives and controllers are used in a variety of applications spanning a number of different environments. Military applications include antennas and sensor positioning, stabilized platforms, guns and cannons and turret control, ship steering/rotor control, bomb and missile fins, pumps, and simulation systems. Military and commercial aviation applications include actuators, landing gear, and emergency power units. For civil aircraft, the ongoing transition away from mechanical and hydraulic and towards “more electric” systems has increased the demand for high reliability electronic motor controllers.

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Avionics Networking Technology

Avionics system architects have a wide variety of commercial off the shelf (COTS) choices for networking technologies. The challenge facing many system architects is choosing a cost effective technology that satisfies the functional requirements of the system. This paper provides insight into some of the key architectural features of two of the most popular emerging networking technologies used in avionics today, namely, Fibre Channel and Ethernet.

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Correlation of Single-Board Computer Ground-Test Data and On-Orbit Upset Rates from the Gaia Mission

DDC SCS750 single board computers (SBC) have been operating without interruption on board the Gaia satellite since its launch in 2014.

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Performance Comparison: Solid State Power Controllers vs. Electromechanical Switching

The design of power distribution systems for modern ground and air platforms entails a number of challenges, including the needs for increased amounts of electrical power for C4I and other equipment;

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Architectual Consequences of Radiation Performance in a Flash NAND Device

Single-event effects and total ionizing-dose testing was performed on a flash NAND device. The results are presented here and the consequences for error correctio

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